In Parashat Vayechi (Genesis 47:28-50:26), Yaakov Avinu calls together his twelve sons for his final blessing, 

“Come together that I may tell you what is to befall you in days to come (בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים).”
Genesis 49:1

The words “in days to come” translate the Hebrew “b’acharit hayamim”, that is, in the “last days”, prophetically referring to the end of the current age and the onset of the Messianic Era. As Yaakov speaks his blessing over the twelve tribes, he settles upon Yosef, of whom he says,

“Joseph[‘s]…arms were made agile by the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob, from there is the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel….”
Genesis 49:22-26, ESV

Each blessing of the twelve tribes is a gate, a doorway to an entire universe to explore, and beyond the scope of this article. Therefore we will zoom in and focus on the specific words, “the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel.” 

E PLURIBUS UNUM

Unless you’re into geology, rocks and stones are not exactly interesting. However, throughout Scripture, there are many examples of “Rocks” and “Stones”, scattered (or perhaps precisely positioned) from Genesis to Revelation, each linking to fascinating concepts embedded in the text. There are many Hebrew words for ‘Rock’ or ‘Stone’ such as:

  • Even (pronounced “eh-vehn”) – אבן – Stone
  • Tzur – צור – Rock
  • Sela – סלה – Rock
  • Rosh Pinah – ראש פנה – Cornerstone

One of the earliest examples occurs right before Yaakov dreams of the Ladder of Jacob. The Torah says, 

“He came upon a certain place and stopped there for the night, for the sun had set. Taking one of the stones of that place (וַיִּקַּח מֵאַבנֵי הַמָּקוֹם), he put it under his head and lay down in that place…Early in the morning, Jacob took the stone (אבן) that he had put under his head and set it up as a pillar and poured oil on the top of it.”
Genesis 28:11

When Jacob begins to rest, he takes of the stones (plural), and places them under his head. When he awakes, he takes of the Stone (singular). In this transition from plural to singular, the Rabbis unlocked an interesting connection,

“The first verse indicates that Jacob took several stones, whereas the latter verse indicates that he took only one stone. Rabbi Yitzḥak says: This teaches that all those stones gathered to one place and each one said: Let this righteous man place his head upon me. And it was taught: And all of them were absorbed into one large rock.”
Chullin 91b, The William Davidson Talmud, Sefaria.org [1]

Out of the many stones, HaShem fused them into one. One interpretation is that there were twelve stones, each representing a tribe, that when fused into one, represent Israel. Stones representing the tribes is a recurrent theme in the Torah, and is beautifully represented in the Choshen Mishpat, the Breastplate of Judgment. According to the Temple Institute, there are over 30 different opinions as to what these stones actually were. Modern Bible translations use best guesses to identify the stones. “After many years of exhaustive research, the scholars of the Temple Institute have come to a final and conclusive identification of the twelve stones of the breastplate of the High Priest” [2]. The Twelve Stones are as listed follows on the Temple Institute website using the conventional names, [3]:

  1. Ruby – Reuben – Red
  2. Jade – Shimon – Green
  3. Agate – Levi – Red, White and Black
  4. Carbuncle – Judah – Teal
  5. Lapis-Lazuli – Yissachar – Blue
  6. Quartz Crystal – Zebulun – Clear
  7. Turquoise – Dan – Blue
  8. Amethyst – Naftali – Purple
  9. Agate – Gad – Grey
  10. Aquamarine – Asher – Blue-Green
  11. Onxy – Yosef – Black
  12. Opal – Binyamin – All colors

These twelve stones are the same twelve stones in the New Jerusalem. The Choshen Mishpat’s square design forms somewhat of a lower-dimensional picture of the New Jerusalem. The Zohar comments,

“He took of the stones of the place. . . – precious stones, fine pearls, twelve supernal stones, as is written: twelve stones (Joshua 4:3), underneath which lie twelve thousand, myriads of hewn stones, all stones.”
Zohar, Va-Yetse, Volume II, translated by Daniel C. Matt, Pritzker Edition, pg. 323

In the Choshen (Breastplate) we see a connection to Mashiach via gematria,

חשן = משיח = 358
Choshen = Mashiach = 358

With this in mind, let us examine when Yaakov awoke, 

“So early in the morning Jacob took the stone that he had put under his head and set it up for a pillar and poured oil on the top of it.” 
Genesis 28:18

This is the first mention of “anointing” in the Torah. The word Mashiach, Messiah means the “Anointed One”. Thus this Unified Stone has a special connection to the Messiah, and is itself a “Mashiach” of sorts. Throughout the Torah, we will see that many of the different “rocks” and “stones” are actually all one. We will only begin to scratch the surface of this Stone. 

EVEN SHETIYAH

The ‘Mashiach Stone’ of Yaakov is incredibly special. Besides the fact that is the yechida of the stones of Israel, the aggadic-midrashic work, Pirkei de-Rebbi Eliezer cited by the Chizkuni, says that this was the Even Shetiyah (The Foundation Stone),

“He took the stone” according to the sages in Pirkey de’Rabbi Eliezer, chapter 35, this stone was the one known in later generations as the even shetiyah symbolising the navel of the globe a mystical stone at the site where the Holy Ark had stood in the Holy of Holies during the first Temple.”
Chizkuni on Gen 28, Sefaria.org [4]

This stone exists today. The Even Shetyiah is the stone located under the ‘Dome of the Rock’ on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. 

The Even Shetiyah (Foundation Stone) on the Temple Mount. Click for Full Resolution.

R’ Yehoshua Starrett comments,

“The Foundation Stone is reality’s singularity point – it symbolizes the Center of Creation.”
The Inner Temple, Breslov Research Institute, pg 47

According to tradition, it was this stone that was the first rock in the planetary formation of the Earth. This is also the location of the Kodesh HaKodashim, the Holy of Holies, and the place of the Aron HaBrit, the Ark of the Covenant. This is the site of where Abraham (nearly) sacrificed Yitzhak, as the R’ Hezekiah ben Manoach, known as the Chizkuni says,

“According to tradition these stones had been part of the altar on which his father Yitzchok had been bound on the occasion of the Akeydah.”
Chizkuni on Genesis 28:11, Sefaria.org [5]

The word “Even” for Stone is made up of three letters, אבן – (Alef-Beit-Nun). Rebbe Nachman, following the Rashbam, comments that the word is a combination of the words “Av” (Father) and “Ben” Son,

“This is (Genesis 49:24) “…from there the Shepherd, the evan (the Rock) of Israel.” Onkelos translates [“EVaN” as a composite of] AV and VeN (father and son). This is the complete-statement: father and son as one. For a half-statement corresponds to the son alone, but the complete-statement is father and son as one. Everything is encompassed there, and through this one can come to the concept of shepherds, as above. Hence this is the meaning of, “from there the Shepherd, the EVaN of Israel.”
R’ Nachman of Breslov, Likutey Moharan I, 22:10, Volume 3, published by the Breslov Research Institute, pg 381

Knowing that the Even Shetiyah is the foundation of the world, we can now read Proverbs in a new light,

צַדִּיק יְסוֹד עוֹלָם

“The Tzaddik is the Foundation of the World.”
Proverbs 10:25

The “Tzaddik” (Righteous One) has a special connection to the Even Shetiyah. It is in his merit that the world stands. 

ROSH PINAH

When building a structure of stone, the most important stone is the cornerstone, called in Hebrew, Rosh Pinah. “All other stones will be set in reference to this stone, thus determining the position of the entire structure…the rite of laying a cornerstone is an important cultural component of eastern architecture and metaphorically in sacred architecture generally” [6]. In the Temple, the cornerstone is incredibly important, as is referenced in Zechariah,

“Who are you, O great mountain? Before Zerubbabel you shall become a plain. And he shall bring forward the top stone amid shouts of ‘Grace חן, grace חן to it!”
Zechariah 4:7

These doubled shouts of chen, chen (grace, grace) are mirrored in Parashat Noach, where the name Noach is doubled. According to Sefer Chizonyot, this verse has messianic applications. Likewise, Midrash Tanchuma links this verse to the Messiah,

“A song of ascents. I will lift up mine eyes to the mountains (Ps. 121:1). Scripture alludes here to the verse Who are you, O great mountain before. Zerubbabel? You will become a plain (Zech. 4:7). This verse refers to the Messiah, the descendant of David. Why was he called a great mountain? Because he will be greater than the patriarchs, as is said: Behold, My servant shall prosper, he shall be exalted and lifted up, and shall be very high (Isa. 52:13). He shall be exalted above Abraham; lifted up above Isaac; and shall be very high above Jacob. He shall be exalted above Abraham, concerning whom it is said: I have lifted up my hand unto the Lord (Gen. 14:22); lifted up above Moses, of whom it is said: That you should say unto me: Carry them in your bosom (Num. 11:12); and shall be very high like the ministering angels, concerning whom it is said: As for their wings, they were high (Ezek. 1:18). Hence Scripture says: Who are you, O great mountain?”
Midrash Tanchuma, Siman 14, translated by Samuel Berman, Sefaria.org [7]

The exaltedness of the Messiah in this passage is stunning. He is above Avraham, Yitzhak and Yaakov. Not only that, but higher than Moshe and the ministering angels! The midrash Pesikta Rabbati explains,

“It is taught, moreover, that in the month of Nisan the Patriarchs will arise and say to the Messiah: Ephraim, our true Messiah, even though we are your forbears, you are greater than we are because you suffered for the iniquities of our children…for the sake of Israel you became a laughingstock and a derision among the nations of the earth. And you sat in darkness, in thick darkness, and your eyes saw no light, and your skin cleaved to your bones, and your body was as dry as a piece of wood; and your eyes grew dim from fasting, and your strength was dried up like a potsherd (Psalm 22) – all these afflictions on account of our children…be content with what you have done, for you have made content the mind of your Maker and our minds also. . . . the Holy One blessed be He, will lift the Messiah to the heaven of heavens and will cloak him in something of the splendor of His own glory…”
Pesikta Rabbati 37.1, translated by R’ William G. Braude, Yale University Press, Volume 2, pgs 685-686

In the Midrash, Avraham Avinu becomes the Foundation Stone for the people of Israel,

“…when the Holy One, blessed be He, saw Abraham arise in the future, he said, “Behold I have found petra (stone) to build upon and to lay the foundation of the world.” Thus he called Abraham “Rock” (צור) as it says in Isaiah 51:2, “Look to the rock from which you were hewn,” and he called Israel “rocks, צורים (tzurim).”
Yalkut Shimoni II.766, cited in Torah Club, Chronicles of the Messiah, Volume 3, pg. 791

John the Immerser seems to allude to this when he says,

“Therefore produce fruit worthy of repentance. Do not think that you can say to yourselves, ‘We have Avraham as our father’! For I tell you that from these stones God can raise up children for Avraham.”
Matthew 3:8, TLV

In Hebrew, the word play is evident:

Do not say, “We have Avraham as avinu (our father)! For I tell you that from these avanim (stones) God can raise up banim (sons) to Avraham.”

It is not enough to simply be halachically Jewish with an outward circumcision. Those who are Jewish must be Jewish outside and inside. For non-Jews, they too must repent to be connected to Abraham. Our heritage is not an automatic pass to live however we wish. Everyone – Jew and non-Jew must live righteous lives, founded in teshuvah (repentance). Yeshua also seemingly quotes this Midrash, applying it to Shimon Kefa, Simon Petros,

“When Yeshua came into the region of Caesarea Philippi, He asked His disciples, “Who do people say that the Son of Man is?” They answered, “Some say John the Immerser, others say Elijah, and still others say Jeremiah or one of the other prophets.” He said, “But who do you say I am?” Simon Peter answered, “You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God.” Yeshua said to him, “Blessed are you, Shimon bar Yonah, because flesh and blood did not reveal this to you, but My Father who is in heaven! And I also tell you that you are Peter (Rock), and upon this rock I will build My community; and the gates of Sheol will not overpower it.”
Matthew 16:13-18

The word “Petros” meaning Rock, has passed into English, with words like “petrification” i.e. the process of turning into stone. David says in Psalms,

אבן מאסו הבונים היתה לראשׁ פנה

“This is the gate of HaShem; the righteous shall enter through it. I thank you that you have answered me and have become my salvation. The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone. This is HaShem’s doing; it is marvelous in our eyes.”
Psalms 118:20-23

According to the Targum, and the Talmud, this verse refers to King David,

“The boy the builders rejected; he was among the sons of Jesse and he was privileged to be appointed as king and ruler. “This is from HaShem,” said the builders; “It is marvelous before us,” said the sons of Jesse.”
Aramaic Targum to Psalms 118:22 [8]

Like Yosef HaTzaddik, David HaMelech was rejected by his brothers. Rashi comments on Micah 5, and connects this verse,

ממך לי יצא. משיח בן דוד וכה”א (תהילים קי״ח:כ״ב) אבן מאסו הבונים

“From you shall emerge for Me: the Messiah, son of David, and so Scripture says (Ps. 118:22): “The stone the builders had rejected became a cornerstone.”
Rashi on Micah 5, cited at Chabad.org

This gives us the prophetic blueprint with what will happen to the Messiah. According to Jewish tradition, Mashiach ben Yosef will be concealed from his brothers and Mashiach ben David will be rejected of men. Isaiah says,

וְהָיָה לְמִקְדָּשׁ וּלְאֶ֣בֶן נֶגֶף וּלְצוּר מִכְשׁוֹל לִשְׁנֵי בָתֵּי יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לְפַח וּלְמוֹקֵשׁ לְיוֹשֵׁב יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃

“And he will become a sanctuary (mikdash) and a stone of offense (even negef) and a rock of stumbling (tzur michshol) to both houses of Israel, a trap and a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem.”
Isaiah 8:14

Analyzing the verse, we know that this Stone will be a Sanctuary, but also offensive and cause Israel to stumble. Notice the words “tzur michshol” (stone of stumbling). Interestingly, the Rambam, R’ Moshe ben Maimon, in his epic Mishneh Torah, discusses Yeshua in a negative fashion, explaining that he tried to become the Messiah but was killed. He then says coincidentally, speaking of Yeshua, 

?וְכִי יֵשׁ מִכְשׁוֹל גָּדוֹל מִזֶּה

“Can there be a greater stumbling block (michshol) than this one?”
Rambam, Mishneh Torah, Hilchot Melachim u’Milchamot, 4

Later in the book of Isaiah, he says,

לָכֵ֗ן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי ה׳ הִנְנִי יִסַּד בְּצִיּוֹן אָבֶן אֶבֶן בֹּחַן פִּנַּת יִקְרַת מוּסָד מוּסָּד הַֽמַּאֲמִין לֹא יָחִישׁ׃

’Therefore thus says the Lord HaShem, “Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone, a tested stone, a costly cornerstone for the foundation, firmly placed. He who believes in it will not be disturbed.”
Isaiah 28:16, NASB

We see the following words used in description of this foundation stone,

Even – Even Bohan – Pinat Yiqrat – Musad
Stone – Testing Stone – Precious Cornerstone – Foundation

The term “Even Bohan” (Stone of Bohan) is referenced in Joshua 15:6 and 18:17 as a boundary marker between the territories of Judah and Benjamin. This stone in Isaiah serves as a symbol, of placing trust in something tried, tested, and unmovable. The New Testament fuses the verses in Isaiah into one, applying this tried and tested stone to Yeshua of Nazareth,

“Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense, and whoever believes in him will not be put to shame.”
Romans 9:33, ESV

A few years ago, on social media, an anti-missionary commented on how Paul took this verse out of context, in his application to Yeshua. He was quickly pointed to source from the Talmud that destroyed his position. The source cited was as follows,

“Judah and Hezekiah, the sons of R. Hiyya, once sat at table with Rabbi and uttered not a word. Whereupon he said: ‘Give the young men plenty of strong wine, so that they may say something.’ When the wine took effect, they began by saying: ‘The son of David cannot appear before the two ruling houses in Israel shall have come to an end, viz., the Exilarchate, in Babylon and the Patriarchate in Palestine, for it is written, ‘And he shall be for a Sanctuary, for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offense to both houses of Israel.’ Thereupon he [Rabbi] exclaimed: ‘You throw thorns in my eyes, my children!’ At this, R. Hiyya [his disciple] remarked: ‘Master, be not angered, for the numerical value of the letters of yayin is seventy, and likewise the letters of sod: When yayin [wine] goes in, sod [secrets] comes out.”
Sanhedrin 38a, Soncino Press Edition

It is beyond the scope of this article to analyze this passage, but suffice to say that the Talmud records the passage as referring to the Messiah. This illustrates a larger problem within the two religious worlds of Judaism and Christianity, a problem shared equally on both sides:

On the Christian side of the equation, most Christians do not know what the Talmud is. They have never been exposed to, nor educated regarding the Jewish sources and their relation to the New Testament. For those who are aware of the Talmud, most of their knowledge is based on second-hand sources, oftentimes from anti-Semitic websites. Very few have actually read or studied the Talmud, but automatically assume that it is an “evil” book. It is not simply a book, it is a compendium of books, but even far beyond that. The Talmud is an ocean, an ocean of tradition, containing the soil from which the New Testament itself sprang. Educated Christian scholars have studied it, from John Gill to Franz Delitzsch, to Strack and Billerbeck, and many into the modern era. Their studies have been invaluable and have advanced New Testament studies greatly, unlocking the text and revealing it as fully rooted in Second Temple Judaism. 

Almost exactly parallel to the Christian world’s relationship to the Talmud, the Jewish world seems to be in the exact same boat when it comes to the New Testament. Most do not even consider it relevant to their faith, and those that have engaged it have done so from a critical, polemic point of view. However, Jewish scholars from Joseph Klausner to David Flusser to Amy Jill-Levine have penetrated its words, revealing the threads that comprise the Jewish tapestry of the New Testament.

This creates problems for those who wish to maintain the status-quo of the Berlin Wall separating Judaism and Yeshua. One must be true to oneself, and logically consistent, free from sinat chinam, baseless hatred. We must accept truth no matter from what source it comes. Therefore, if the Talmud says “A” and the New Testament says “A” – then the Christian must accept that the Talmud is correct on the point. The Jew must also acknowledge the New Testament is correct on the matter. Now compound this principle of consistency by the overwhelming number of parallels found between the New Testament and the Talmud. In fact, it may be possible to reconstruct an entire “New Testament” solely from the parallels found in Jewish literature. When R’ Ignaz Lichtenstein picked up the New Testament, and began to read its words, he commented,

Not the half had been told me of the greatness, power and glory of this Book, formerly a sealed book to me. All seemed so new, arid yet it did me good, like the sight of an old friend who has laid aside his dusty, travel-worn garments, and appears in in festive attire, like a bridegroom in wedding robes, or a bride adorned with her jewels.”
R’ Yitzhak Lichtenstein, cited at the Yinon Blog, R’ Joshua Brumbach [9]

Returning to the the ‘Stone that The Builders Rejected’, we must ask what is the identity of the “builders”? The Talmud refers to “builders” as the “disciples of the wise”,

“R. Eleazar said in the name of R. Hanina: The disciples of the wise increase peace in the world, as it says, And all your children shall be taught of the Lord, and great shall be the peace of your children. (Isa. LIV, 13) Read not banayik [your children] but bonayik [your builders]. Great peace have they that love Your law, and there is no stumbling for them. (Ps. 119:165)”
Berachot 64a, Soncino Press Edition

Based on this, it appears that Tikkunei HaZohar states,

“[So too,] about the heavenly beasts it is said (Isaiah 6:3) “One (zeh) would call to the other (zeh), Holy! Holy! Holy! The Lord of Hosts! His presence fills the earth.” Certainly, they are called “zeh and zeh“, just like the two sides of the tablets of Torah, inscribed on one side and the other. These are inscribed tablets of stone, and that stone is the Foundation Stone from which the earth is formed. And this is the pupil of the eye, of which it is written (Zechariah 3:9) “A single stone with seven eyes.” These are the seven skins of the eye, of which it is said (Psalms 119:164) “I praise you seven times a day.” And this is the Holy Regency, as it is written, (Psalms 118:22) “The stone that the builders rejected will be the chief cornerstone.” Who are these ‘builders’? They are they masters of the Mishnah who built structures in the world, and the deciders of law (Halachah) who rejected Her in exile. [Therefore,] it is written of Her, “will be the chief cornerstone. For she is Moses’ Halachah from Sinai, received by Moses. Although Her pupil was black, through it and from it will the Holy One light up the world, for He will illuminate Her.”
Tikkunei Zohar 146b, Sefaria.org [10]

This is a commentary on the Sod level of the Torah, and is not literal. Tikkunei Zohar appears to build upon the previous traditions that King David was rejected by his brothers. In the language and symbolism of the Zohar, King David represents the lower Shekhinah, the Sefirah Malchut. This is also symbolized by the Moon, the Bride, the Oral Torah and Rachel. Ultimately, it is puzzling that it says the builders were the Masters of the Mishnah, the leadership, who rejected the Cornerstone. This strangely agrees with what Shimon Kefa said in Acts,

“This Yeshua is the stone that was rejected by you, the builders, which has become the cornerstone.”
Acts 4:11

All of this is to fulfill the pattern of Yosef and David, who were rejected by their brothers. Moshe, too, was rejected by the leadership of Israel at times. Yeshua says,

“But he looked directly at them (the chief priests and scribes) and said, “What then is this that is written: “‘The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone’? Everyone who falls on that stone will be broken to pieces, and when it falls on anyone, it will crush him.”
Luke 20:17-18, cf 
Matthew 21:42, Mark 12:10

Like the Even Shetiyah, the Rosh Pinah in the Beit HaMikdash, the Holy Temple, is an important piece. It essentially is the equivalent of a miraculous beam in the Tabernacle, which was a part that held the entire structure together, unifying all of the different parts, fusing it into one. 

A STONE CUT WITHOUT HANDS

In the famous story of David versus Goliath, David picks up five smooth stones,

וַיִּבחַר־לוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה חַלֻּקֵי־אֲבָנִים

“Then he took his staff in his hand and chose five smooth stones (chamisha chalukei avanim) from the brook and put them in his shepherd’s pouch. His sling was in his hand, and he approached the Philistine…And David put his hand in his bag and took out a stone and slung it and struck the Philistine on his forehead. The stone sank into his forehead, and he fell on his face to the ground.”
1 Samuel 17:40, 49

With a single stone, King David destroyed the enemy of Israel. The word for ‘five’ in Hebrew is chamisha, which is like the word Chumash, which is a reference to the Five Books of the Torah. When Israel entered into the land, they faced an entire army of Goliaths, giants in the land of Canaan, including Sichon and Og. The giants blocking entry to the land represent the Galut, and the kingdoms of the world.

In the book of Daniel, Nebuchadnezzar had a dream which none could interpret. Unlike Pharoah before him, he refused to tell the details of the dream, yet wanted his wise men to interpret it! Like Yosef before him, Daniel was exiled to a foreign land, brought before the king reveal the interpretation. After praying with his three friends, Hananiah, Azariah and Mishael, HaShem revealed the dream to Daniel. Daniel spoke to the king,

“You looked, O king, and behold, there before you stood a huge statue—an enormous and dazzling image, whose appearance was awesome. The 1) head of that statue was of pure gold, 2) its breast and its arms of silver, 3) its belly and its thighs of bronze, 4) its legs of iron, and 5) its feet partly iron and partly clay. While you were watching, a stone was cut out, but not by hands. It struck the statue on its feet of iron and clay and smashed them. Then the iron, the clay, the bronze, the silver and the gold were crushed together, and became like chaff from summer threshing-floors that the wind blows away. Not a trace of them could be found. Then the stone that struck the image became a great mountain and filled the whole earth.”
Daniel 2:31-35

The different parts of the statue are interpreted by Daniel as follows,

“You (Nebuchadnezzar) are the head of gold. Now after you another kingdom will arise, one inferior to yours. Next, a third kingdom, one of bronze, will rule over all the earth. Finally, there will be a fourth kingdom, strong as iron—for iron shatters and breaks everything—and just as iron smashes everything, so will it shatter and crush all the others. Just as you saw that the feet and toes were partly potter’s clay and partly iron, so this will be a divided kingdom. It will have some of the strength of the iron, for you saw the iron mixed with clay.”
Daniel 2:38-41

The first four elements are generally agreed upon in Biblical interpretation, the fifth part is a bit more mysterious,

  • Gold Head – Babylon
  • Silver Chest and Arms – Medo-Persia
  • Bronze Belly and Upper Legs – Greece
  • Iron Lower Legs – Rome
  • Mixed Iron and Clay Feet and Toes – Final Kingdom, which is an extension of Rome, but a mixture of weaker nations

© GoodSalt.com. Artist: Lars Justinian. Used with permission.

Regarding this final kingdom, the Artscroll Commentary to Daniel says,

“This refers to the distant end of the divided kingdom, just like the toes are the ends of the feet. . . Both camps will include strong nations and weak nations. . . The different nations will intermarry with each other, but these intermarriages will not bring about a blending of the different ethnic, racial and religious divisions. Each group will retain its distinctive features, just like iron, which does not blend with earthenware (Rashi, Ibn Ezra). Though they will intermarry, this will not cause them to love one another. There will still be hatred and strife among these nations.” (R’ Saadiah).”
Daniel, Artscroll Tanach Series, Mesorah Publications, Ltd., pgs. 108-109

This commentary is stunning, because that is exactly what is happening in the world now. The Western world, which is an extension of Rome (Iron), is certainly ethnically mixed together with the East, yet is so divided across political, religious and racial lines. The divisions are not healing, they are worsening, increasing the evil of racism and hatred. The Ibn Ezra says the Fourth Kingdom is actually that of Ishmael (Islam), and that Rome is part of the the Third Kingdom. While he appears to be incorrect in this, he is not totally wrong, as it appears this mixed kingdom may be part of two elements that do not blend, that is Edom (Christianity or the West) and Ishmael (Islam representing the East). The East has experienced massive destabilization from Africa, Syria, Iraq to Burma has lead to numerous refugee crises, causing a massive influx of immigration into the West. To be clear, we are not xenophobic, we are merely pointing out the facts. The fact that we have to clarify this point also shows the level of division in our society. This is exactly what Daniel interpreted of Nebuchadnezzar’s dream. We are in the acharit hayamim, the Last Days. All of this will center upon Jerusalem,

“On that day I will make Jerusalem a heavy stone for all the peoples. All who lift it will surely hurt themselves. And all the nations of the earth will gather against it.”
Zechariah 12:3

Daniel then says,

“As you looked, a stone was cut out by no human hand, and it struck the image on its feet of iron and clay, and broke them in pieces…Just as you saw that a stone was cut from a mountain by no human hand, and that it broke in pieces the iron, the bronze, the clay, the silver, and the gold. A great God has made known to the king what shall be after this. The dream is certain, and its interpretation sure.”
Daniel 2:34, 45

Just like a Goliath, a single stone strikes the towering figure, yet not on the head, but on its feet. The Final Kingdom is destroyed by the Stone. But who is this Stone? The Midrash says,

“Stone” this is the King as it is said [in Isaiah 29:16], “Behold I am laying in Zion a stone, a tested stone,: and [in Daniel 2:45] “Inasmuch as you saw that a stone was cut out.” The stone in Isaiah and the stone in Daniel are King Messiah.”
Midrash Aggadah, cited in Yalkut Moshiach: Vayechi 451 | 339, cited in Torah Club: Shadows of Messiah, Volume 1, pg. 301

By this we know that we are about to experience the Revelation of the Stone, the Shepherd of Israel, whose kingdom will grow into a great mountain filling the earth. The Midrash Tanchuma says,

“He (Daniel) saw the coming of the Messiah (in his vision), as Daniel said: You saw that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon its feet that were of iron and clay, and broke them in pieces (Dan. 2:34). R. Simeon the son of Lakish contended: This verse refers to the Messiah. Smote the image alludes to all the kingdoms that serve idols. Why is the rule of the Messiah likened to stone? It is likened to stone because of the Torah in which Israel labors, as it is said: The two tables of the testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God (Exod. 31:18). Another explanation as to why it is likened to a stone. It is because of the merit of Jacob, concerning whom it is written: From thence, from the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel (Gen. 49:24).”
Midrash Tanchuma, Terumah, Siman 7:4 [11]

This Mashiach-Stone is likened to the Torah, made of Tablets of Stone. Midrash Tanchuma continues,

“Another explanation. He is likened to stone because it destroyed a heart of stone, as it is written: And I will remove the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them a heart of flesh (Ezek. 36:21). Which smote the image (Dan. 2:34) indicates that He will put an end to all the nations, as is said: And he shall smite the land with the rod of His mouth (Isa. 11:4). At that time Israel will dwell in ease and security in the world, as it is stated: And they shall dwell safely therein, and shall build houses, and plant vineyards therein; yea, they shall dwell safely (Ezek. 28:26).”
Midrash Tanchuma, Terumah, Siman 7:5 [12]

Mashiach not only destroys the kingdoms of the world, he destroys the stony heart, and replaces it with a heart of flesh. He doesn’t only take Israel out of “Egypt”, he takes “Egypt” out of Israel.

THE STONE WITH SEVEN EYES

The book of Zechariah says,

“For mark well this stone which I place before Yehoshua, a single stone with seven eyes. I will execute its engraving—declares HaShem of Hosts—and I will remove that country’s guilt in a single day.”
Zechariah 3:9

The Artscroll commentary says,

“This stone is the foundation stone of the Temple that was laid immediately after Cyrus permitted the reconstruction of the Temple. This stone seemed small in Joshua’s eyes because the enemies of the Jews prevented the people from building upon it. However, it shall now be widened sevenfold, where one stone stood, seven shall appear (Rashi). . . alternatively it is the foundation stone that will be laid in the times of the Third Temple by a Kohen who will be a descendant of Joshua (Metzudos).”
Daniel, Artscroll Tanach Series, Mesorah Publishing, Ltd., pg. 218

Note that the stone “seemed small”, unimpressive. The process of the restoration of Israel began slowly, yet even those who despised the “day of small things” will rejoice, 

“The hands of Zerubbabel have laid the foundation of this house; his hands shall also complete it. Then you will know that HaShem of hosts has sent me to you. For whoever has despised the day of small things shall rejoice, and shall see the plumb line in the hand of Zerubbabel. “These seven are the eyes of HaShem, which range through the whole earth.”
Zechariah 4:9-10, ESV Modified

Like this, the process of Redemption began by Mashiach ben Yosef seems small, but continues to expand and grow, and will overtake the earth. Kol HaTor (The Voice of the Turtledove), written by R’ Hillel Shklover, says,

“According to the Gaon, Rabbi Eliyahu of Vilna, below are the seven major principles connected with the approach called the footsteps of the Mashiach, which is based on the sentence, “on each stone were seven eyes [apertures]” [Zach. 3:9].”
Kol HaTor 1:8 [13]

In the book of Revelation, it links the Seven-Eyes with those of Lamb,

“And I looked, and behold, in the midst of the throne and of the four living creatures, and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb as though it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God sent out into all the earth.”
Revelation 5:6

The Lamb with Seven Eyes is the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel. Looking into this Mashiach-Stone, we see the following:

  1. It is the Yechida, the Unification, of all the Stones of Israel
  2. It is Anointed and Engraved
  3. Is Connected to the Sacrifice of Yitzhak
  4. Connected to removing the guilt of Israel
  5. Appeared small and unimpressive at first
  6. It has been despised and rejected
  7. Was Rejected by the Builders
  8. Has become the Corner Stone
  9. Is the Foundation Stone (Even Shetiyah) of the world, and therefore is connected to the Tzaddik
  10. Destroys the Kingdoms of the Earth
  11. Will Grow into a Mountain
  12. Symbolizes the Mashiach

Returning the original text, “the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel,” the Ralbag, R’ Levi ben Gershom (1288CE–1344CE), comments on our phrase,

משם רועה אבן ישראל. זה רמז למשיח בן יוסף לפי דעתי והרצון בו שמיוסף יצא האיש שיהיה רועה אבן ישראל

“From there, the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel.” This is a hint to Mashiach ben Yosef, in my opinion, and the will within him who is from Yosef, comes forth to be the man who will be the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel.” 
Ralbag Beur HaMilot on Torah, Genesis 49:25 [14]

In Zechariah it says,

“In that day a fountain shall be opened for the house of David and for the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleanness . . . Awake, O sword, against My Shepherd, against the Man who is My Companion,” says HaShem Tzva’ot. “Strike (nakah) the Shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered.”
Zechariah 13:1, 7

And as we have learned in the blessing of Joseph, the Stone and the Shepherd are one. In the book of Exodus, Moshe is told to strike the rock that it spring forth water. The people of Israel, having been slaves in Egypt, understood the language of “striking”. However, after the giving of the Torah, in the book of Numbers, Moshe is told to speak to the Rock before Israel, 

“HaShem spoke to Moshe, saying, “Take the rod, and gather the assembly together, you, and Aharon you brother, and speak to the rock before their eyes, and it shall give forth its water…Moshe lifted his hand and struck (nakah) the rock.”
Numbers 20:8

Midrash Rabbah, following Targum Yonatan, makes an unusual commentary on Psalm 78:20, regarding Moshe striking the Rock,

“He smote the rock and brought forth blood, as it is said: ‘Behold, He smote the rock, that waters gushed out – wayazubu’ (Ps. 78:20), and the the word wayazubu is an expression used of blood, as it is said: ‘And if a woman have an issue (yazub) of her blood’ (Lev. 15:25). For this reason did he smite the rock twice, because at first he brought forth blood and finally water.”
Exodus Rabbah 3:13, Soncino Press Edition

This Rock, when struck, brought forth blood and water. The Gospels say of Yeshua’s death,

“When they came to Yeshua and saw that He was already dead, they did not break His legs, but one of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and immediately blood and water came out.”
John 19:33-34

In 1 Corinthians, it says,

“For I do not want you to be unaware, brothers, that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea, and all were immersed into Moshe in the cloud and in the sea, and all ate the same spiritual food, and all drank the same spiritual drink. For they drank from the spiritual Rock that followed them, and the Rock was Mashiach.”  
1 Corinthians 10:1-4, ESV Modified

THE WHITE STONE

Returning to the stones that Yaakov Avinu placed under his head. Out of the many, emerge the One Stone. 1st Peter says,

“As you come to him, a living stone rejected by men but in the sight of God chosen and precious, you yourselves like living stones are being built up as a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Yeshua the Messiah. For it stands in Scripture: “Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone, a cornerstone chosen and precious, and whoever believes in him will not be put to shame.” So the honor is for you who believe, but for those who do not believe, “The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone,” and “A stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense.” They stumble because they disobey the word, as they were destined to do. But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for his own possession, that you may proclaim the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light. Once you were not a people, but now you are God’s people; once you had not received mercy, but now you have received mercy.”
1 Peter 2:4-10

Our world is consumed with darkness, hatred and division, and these fires are even stoked by those claiming to fight against them. Anti-Semitism is increasing, as nation rises against nation, people against people (Matthew 24:7). The antidote to the division in our world today is to see the face of Mashiach Yeshua in each person, to recognize that everyone has a place in Hashem’s Heavenly Temple, if they receive the plan He has for them. Today, even among Israel, who is to be the light of the world, there exists sinat chinam, baseless hatred, chas v’shalom. We must love one another as Mashiach has loved us. R’ Starrett says,

“The world is a hologram, each part containing the whole (Oheiv YIsrael, Shekalim). Each stone of the Temple contains the whole thing – but the real whole is greater than its parts. Each stone of the Temple is a separate soul – a soul that is one of us. All together we make the Temple whole, yet each one retains his uniqueness. It takes a great tzaddik, a Moses-Mashiach, to put all the parts together. May God grant each of us the wisdom, the courage and the humility to build his own inner Temple, and to have a part in the collective one. Amen.”
R’ Yehoshua Starrett, The Inner Temple, Breslov Research Institute, pg xiv

Like the stones under the head of Yaakov Avinu, all of Israel (and eventually the entire world) will fuse into one under the guidance of Yeshua, the True Tzaddik, the King Messiah, the Foundation Stone, as he says,

“He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the communities. To the one who overcomes I will give some of the hidden manna, and I will give him a white stone, with a new name written on the stone that no one knows except the one who receives it.’”
Revelation 2:17


REFERENCES

  1. Chullin 91b, The William Davidson Talmud, Sefaria.org
  2. The Priestly Garments of the High Priest & Ordinary Priests, Temple Institute
  3. Ibid.
  4. Chizkuni on Gen 28, Sefaria.org
  5. Chizkuni on Genesis 28:11, Sefaria.org
  6. Wikipedia.com, “Cornerstone”
  7. Midrash Tanchuma, Siman 14, translated by Samuel Berman, Sefaria.org
  8. Aramaic Targum to Psalms 118:22, Sefaria.org
  9. The Yahrtzeit of Rabbi Lichtenstein, Yinon Blog, R’ Joshua Brumbach
  10. Tikkunei Zohar 146b, Sefaria.org
  11. Midrash Tanchuma, Terumah, Siman 7:4
  12. Midrash Tanchuma, Terumah, Siman 7:5
  13. Kol HaTor 1:8
  14. Ralbag Beur HaMilot on Torah, Genesis 49:25

APPENDIX I

A list of relevant references to Rock or Stone throughout the Bible.

ROCK

  1. Exo 17:6  Behold, I will stand before you there upon the rock in Horeb; and you will smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink.
  2. Exo 33:21  And HaShem said, Behold, there is a place by me, and you shall stand upon a rock:
  3. Exo 33:22  And it shall come to pass, while my glory passes by, that I will put you in a cleft of the rock, and will cover you with my hand
  4. Num 20:8  Take the rod, and gather you the assembly together, you, and Aaron thy brother, and speak you unto the rock before their eyes; and it shall give forth his water, and you shall bring forth to them water out of the rock: so you shall give the congregation and their beasts drink.
  5. Num 20:10  And Moses and Aaron gathered the congregation together before the rock, and he said unto them, Hear now, you rebels; must we fetch you water out of this rock?
  6. Num 20:11  And Moses lifted up his hand, and with his rod he smote the rock twice: and the water came out abundantly, and the congregation drank, and their beasts also.
  7. Deu 8:15  who brought you forth water out of the rock of flint;
  8. Deu 32:4  He is the Rock, his work is perfect: for all his ways are judgment: a God of truth and without iniquity, just and right is he.
  9. Deu 32:13  he made him to suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the flinty rock;
  10. Deu 32:15  the Rock of Yeshurun’s salvation.
  11. Deu 32:18  Of the Rock that begat you, you are unmindful, and have forgotten God that formed you.
  12. Deu 32:30  How should one chase a thousand, and two put ten thousand to flight, except their Rock had sold them, and HaShem had shut them up?
  13. Deu 32:31  For their rock is not as our Rock, even our enemies themselves being judges.
  14. Jdg 6:26  And build an altar unto HaShem your God upon the top of this rock
  15. Jdg 15:8-11  And he smote them hip and thigh with a great slaughter: and he went down and dwell in the top of the rock Etam
  16. Jdg 15:13  And they spake unto him, saying, No; but we will bind you fast, and deliver you into their hand: but surely we will not kill you. And they bound him with two new cords, and brought him up from the rock
  17. 1Sa 2:2  There is none holy as HaShem: for there is none beside you: neither is there any rock like our God.
  18. 1Sa 14:4  And between the passages, by which Jonathan sought to go over unto the Philistines’ garrison, there was a sharp rock on the one side, and a sharp rock on the other side: and the name of the one was Bozez, and the name of the other Seneh.
  19. 2Sa 22:2  And he said, HaShem is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer;
  20. 2Sa 22:3  The God of my rock; in him will I trust: he is my shield, and the horn of my salvation, my high tower, and my refuge, my savior; You save me from violence.
  21. 2Sa 22:32  who is a rock, save our God?
  22. 2Sa 22:47  HaShem lives; and blessed be my rock; and exalted be the God of the rock of my salvation.
  23. 2Sa 23:3  The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spoke to me, He that rules over men must be righteous, ruling in the fear of God.
  24. 1Ch 11:15  Now three of the thirty captains went down to the rock to David, into the cave of Adullam
  25. Neh 9:15  And gave them bread from heaven for their hunger, and brought forth water for them out of the rock for their thirst
  26. Job 29:6  When I washed my steps with butter, and the rock poured me out rivers of oil;
  27. Psa 18:2  HaShem is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer; my God, my strength, in whom I will trust; my buckler, and the horn of my salvation, and my high tower.
  28. Psa 18:31  For who is God save HaShem? or who is a rock save our God?
  29. Psa 18:46  HaShem live; and blessed be my rock; and let the God of my salvation be exalted.
  30. Psa 27:5  For in the time of trouble he shall hide me in his pavilion: in the secret of his tabernacle shall he hide me; he shall set me up upon a rock.
  31. Psa 28:1  A Psalm of David. Unto you will I cry, O HaShem my rock
  32. Psa 31:2  Bow down thine ear to me; deliver me speedily: be you my strong rock, for an house of defence to save me.
  33. Psa 31:3  For you are my rock and my fortress
  34. Psa 40:2  He brought me up also out of an horrible pit, out of the miry clay, and set my feet upon a rock, and established my goings.
  35. Psa 42:9  I will say unto God my rock, Why have you forgotten me? why go I mourning because of the oppression of the enemy?
  36. Psa 61:2  lead me to the rock that is higher than I.
  37. Psa 62:2,6-7  He only is my rock and my salvation; he is my defence; I shall not be greatly moved
  38. Psa 71:3  for you are my rock and my fortress.
  39. Psa 78:16, 20  He brought streams also out of the rock, and caused waters to run down like rivers…Behold, he smote the rock, that the waters gushed out, and the streams overflowed; can he give bread also? can he provide flesh for his people?
  40. Psa 78:35  And they remembered that God was their rock, and the high God their redeemer.
  41. Psa 81:16  He should have fed them also with the finest of the wheat: and with honey out of the rock should I have satisfied you.
  42. Psa 89:26  You are my father, my God, and the rock of my salvation.
  43. Psa 92:15  He is my rock, and there is no unrighteousness in him.
  44. Psa 94:22  My God is the rock of my refuge.
  45. Psa 95:1  make a joyful noise to the rock of our salvation.
  46. Psa 105:41  He opened the rock, and the waters gushed out
  47. Psa 114:8  Which turned the rock into a standing water, the flint into a fountain of waters.
  48. Song 2:14  O my dove, in the clefts of the rock
  49. Isa 8:14  And he shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offense to both the houses of Israel
  50. Isa 17:10  the rock of your strength
  51. Isa 48:21  he caused the waters to flow out of the rock for them: he clave the rock also, and the waters gushed out.
  52. Isa 51:1  look unto the rock from where you were hewn
  53. Mat 7:24  Therefore whosoever hears these sayings of mine, and does them, I will liken him unto a wise man, which built his house upon a rock:
  54. Mat 16:18  And I say also unto you, you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my congregation
  55. Mat 27:60  And laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock: and he rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed.
  56. Mar 15:46  And he bought fine linen, and took him down, and wrapped him in the linen, and laid him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre.
  57. Rom 9:33  As it is written, Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and rock of offense: and whosoever believes in him shall not be ashamed.
  58. 1Co 10:4  And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Mashiach.
  59. 1Pe 2:8  And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense, even to them which stumble at the word, being disobedient: whereunto also they were appointed.

STONE

  1. Gen 2:12  And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone.
  2. Gen 11:3  And they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn them throughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for morter.
  3. Gen 28:18  And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it.
  4. Gen 28:22  And this stone, which I have set for a pillar, shall be God’s house: and of all that you will give me I will surely give the tenth unto you.
  5. Gen 29:2  a great stone was upon the well’s mouth…they rolled the stone from the well’s mouth, and watered the sheep, and put the stone again upon the well’s mouth in his place.
  6. Gen 29:10  And it came to pass, when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban his mother’s brother, and the sheep of Laban his mother’s brother, that Jacob went near, and rolled the stone from the well’s mouth, and watered the flock of Laban his mother’s brother.
  7. Gen 31:45  And Jacob took a stone, and set it up for a pillar.
  8. Gen 35:14  And Jacob set up a pillar in the place where he talked with him, even a pillar of stone: and he poured a drink offering thereon, and he poured oil thereon.
  9. Gen 49:24  But his bow abode in strength, and the arms of his hands were made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob; (from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel:)
  10. Exo 4:25  Then Zipporah took a sharp stone, and cut off the foreskin of her son, and cast it at his feet, and said, Surely a bloody husband are you to me.
  11. Exo 17:12  But Moses’ hands were heavy; and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat thereon; and Aaron and Hur stayed up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side; and his hands were steady until the going down of the sun.
  12. Exo 20:25  And if you wilt make me an altar of stone, you will not build it of hewn stone: for if you lift up thy tool upon it, you hast polluted it.
  13. Exo 24:10  And they saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven in his clearness.
  14. Exo 24:12  And HaShem said unto Moses, Come up to me into the mount, and be there: and I will give you tablets of stone, and a law,
  15. Exo 28:10  Six of their names on one stone, and the other six names of the rest on the other stone, according to their birth.
  16. Exo 28:11  With the work of an engraver in stone, like the engravings of a signet, will you engrave the two stones with the names of the children of Israel: you shall make them to be set in ouches of gold.
  17. Exo 31:18  And he gave unto Moses, when he had made an end of communing with him upon mount Sinai, two tablets of testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God.
  18. Exo 34:1  And HaShem said unto Moses, Carve two tablets of stone like unto the first: and I will write upon these tablets the words that were in the first tablets, which you broke.
  19. Exo 34:4  And he carved two tablets of stone like unto the first; and Moses rose up early in the morning, and went up unto mount Sinai, as HaShem had commanded him, and took in his hand the two tables of stone.
  20. Lev 24:23  And Moses spake to the children of Israel, that they should bring forth him that had cursed out of the camp, and stone him with stones. And the children of Israel did as HaShem commanded Moses.
  21. Deu 4:13  And he declared unto you his covenant, which he commanded you to perform, even ten commandments; and he wrote them upon two tables of stone.
  22. Deu 5:22  And he wrote them in two tables of stone
  23. Deu 9:9  When I was gone up into the mount to receive the tablets of stone, even the tables of the covenant which HaShem made with you
  24. Deu 9:10  And HaShem delivered unto me two tablets of stone written with the finger of God
  25. Deu 9:11  And it came to pass at the end of forty days and forty nights, that HaShem gave me the two tablets of stone, even the tablets of the covenant.
  26. Deu 10:1  At that time HaShem said unto me, Hew you two tables of stone like unto the first, and come up unto me into the mount, and make you an ark of wood.
  27. Deu 10:3  And I made an ark of shittim wood, and hewed two tables of stone like unto the first, and went up into the mount, having the two tablets in mine hand.
  28. Jos 4:5  And Joshua said unto them, Pass over before the ark of HaShem your God into the midst of Jordan, and take ye up every man of you a stone upon his shoulder, according unto the number of the tribes of the children of Israel:
  29. Jos 15:6  And the border went up to Bethhogla, and passed along by the north of Betharabah; and the border went up to the stone of Bohan the son of Reuben:
  30. Jos 18:17  And was drawn from the north, and went forth to En Shemesh, and went forth toward Geliloth, which is over against the going up of Adummim, and descended to the stone of Bohan the son of Reuben,
  31. Jos 24:26  And Joshua wrote these words in the book of the law of God, and took a great stone, and set it up there under an oak, that was by the sanctuary of HaShem.
  32. Jos 24:27  And Joshua said unto all the people, Behold, this stone shall be a witness unto us
  33. 1Sa 6:14  And the cart came into the field of Joshua, a Bethshemite, and stood there, where there was a great stone
  34. 1Sa 6:15  And the Levites took down the ark of the LORD, and the coffer that was with it, wherein the jewels of gold were, and put them on the great stone:
  35. 1Sa 7:12  Then Samuel took a stone, and set it between Mizpeh and Shen, and called the name of it Even Ezer, saying, Hitherto has HaShem helped us.
  36. 1Sa 17:49  And David put his hand in his bag, and took thence a stone, and slang it, and smote the Philistine in his forehead, that the stone sunk into his forehead; and he fell upon his face to the earth.
  37. 1Sa 17:50  So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and with a stone, and smote the Philistine, and slew him; but there was no sword in the hand of David.
  38. 1Sa 20:19  And when you hast stayed three days, then you will go down quickly, and come to the place where you hid yourself when the business was in hand, and will remain by the stone Ezel.
  39. 2Sa 20:8  When they were at the great stone which is in Gibeon
  40. 1Ki 1:9  the stone of Zoheleth, which is by En Rogel
  41. 1Ki 6:36  And he built the inner court with three rows of hewed stone,
  42. 1Ki 8:9  There was nothing in the ark save the two tables of stone
  43. 2Ki 12:12  And to masons, and hewers of stone, and to buy timber and hewed stone to repair the breaches of the house of HaShem
  44. Job 38:6  Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the cornerstone thereof
  45. Psa 118:22  The stone which the builders refused is become the head cornerstone
  46. Isa 8:14  And he shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offense to both the houses of Israel, for a gin and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem.
  47. Isa 28:16  Therefore thus says the Lord HaShem, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure foundation: he that believeth shall not make haste.
  48. Eze 1:26  And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone: and upon the likeness of the throne was the likeness as the appearance of a man above upon it.
  49. Eze 10:1  Then I looked, and, behold, in the firmament that was above the head of the cherubims there appeared over them as it were a sapphire stone, as the appearance of the likeness of a throne.
  50. Eze 10:9  And when I looked, behold the four wheels by the cherubim, one wheel by one cherub, and another wheel by another cherub: and the appearance of the wheels was as the colour of a beryl stone.
  51. Dan 2:34  You saw till that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them to pieces.
  52. Dan 2:35  Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshingfloors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them: and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth.
  53. Dan 2:45  Forasmuch as you saw that the stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it brake in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter: and the dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof sure.
  54. Dan 6:17  And a stone was brought, and laid upon the mouth of the den; and the king sealed it with his own signet, and with the signet of his lords; that the purpose might not be changed concerning Daniel.
  55. Hab 2:11  For the stone shall cry out of the wall, and the beam out of the timber shall answer it.
  56. Hag 2:15  And now, I pray you, consider from this day and upward, from before a stone was laid upon a stone in the temple of the LORD:
  57. Zec 3:9  For behold the stone that I have laid before Joshua; upon one stone shall be seven eyes: behold, I will engrave the graving thereof, says HaShem of hosts, and I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day.
  58. Zec 12:3  And in that day will I make Jerusalem a burdensome stone for all people: all that burden themselves with it shall be cut in pieces, though all the people of the earth be gathered together against it.
  59. Mat 21:42  Yeshua said to them, Did you never read in the scriptures, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner: this is the Lord’s doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes?
  60. Mat 21:44  And whosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken: but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder.
  61. Mat 27:60  And laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock: and he rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed.
  62. Mat 28:2  And, behold, there was a great earthquake: for the angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled back the stone from the door, and sat upon it.
  63. Mar 12:10  And have ye not read this scripture; The stone which the builders rejected is become the head of the corner:
  64. Mar 15:46  And he bought fine linen, and took him down, and wrapped him in the linen, and laid him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre.
  65. Mar 16:3  And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre?
  66. Mar 16:4  And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great.
  67. Luk 20:17  And he beheld them, and said, What is this then that is written, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner?
  68. Luk 20:18  Whosoever shall fall upon that stone shall be broken; but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder.
  69. Luk 23:53  And he took it down, and wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a sepulchre that was hewn in stone, wherein never man before was laid.
  70. Luk 24:2  And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre.
  71. Joh 1:42  You are Shimon bar Jonah: you will be called Kefa, which is by interpretation, A stone.
  72. Joh 11:41  Then they took away the stone from the place where the dead was laid. And Yeshua lifted up his eyes, and said, Father, I thank you that you have heard me.
  73. Joh 20:1  The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre.
  74. Act 4:11  This is the stone which was set at nought of you builders, which is become the head of the corner.
  75. 2Co 3:3  Forasmuch as ye are manifestly declared to be the epistle of Messiah ministered by us, written not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God; not in tables of stone, but in fleshy tables of the heart.
  76. Eph 2:20  And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Yeshua the Messiah himself being the chief corner stone;
  77. 1Pe 2:4  To whom coming, as unto a living stone, disallowed indeed of men, but chosen of God, and precious…Wherefore also it is contained in the scripture, Behold, I lay in Zion a chief corner stone, elect, precious: and he that believeth on him shall not be confounded…Unto you therefore which believe he is precious: but unto them which be disobedient, the stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the head of the corner. And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense, even to them which stumble at the word, being disobedient: whereunto also they were appointed.
  78. Rev 2:17  He that has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saysunto the communities; To him that overcomes will I give to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no man knows saving he that receives it.
  79. Rev 4:3  And he that sat was to look upon like a jasper and a sardine stone: and there was a rainbow round about the throne, in sight like unto an emerald.
  80. Rev 21:11  Having the glory of God: and her light was like unto a stone most precious, even like a jasper stone, clear as crystal;
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