Yeshua answered and spoke again in parables to them, saying,
The Kingdom of Heaven is like a certain king, who made a marriage feast for his son,
and sent out his servants to call those who were invited to the marriage feast, but they would not come.
Again he sent out other servants, saying, Tell those who are invited, Behold, I have prepared my dinner. My cattle and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready. Come to the marriage feast!
But they made light of it, and went their ways, one to his own farm, another to his merchandise,
and the rest grabbed his servants, and treated them shamefully, and killed them.
When the king heard that, he was angry, and sent his armies, destroyed those murderers, and burned their city.
Then he said to his servants, The wedding is ready, but those who were invited weren’t worthy.
Go therefore to the intersections of the highways, and as many as you may find, invite to the marriage feast.
Those servants went out into the highways, and gathered together as many as they found, both bad and good. The wedding was filled with guests.
But when the king came in to see the guests, he saw there a man who didn’t have on wedding clothing,
and he said to him, Friend, how did you come in here not wearing wedding clothing? He was speechless.
Then the king said to the servants, Bind him hand and foot, take him away, and throw him into the outer darkness, there is where the weeping and grinding of teeth will be.
For many are called, but few chosen.
Then the Pharisees went and took counsel how they might entrap him in his talk.
They sent their disciples to him, along with the Herodians, saying, Rabbi, we know that you are honest, and teach the way of God in truth, no matter whom you teach, for you arent partial to anyone.
Tell us therefore, what do you think? Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?
But Yeshua perceived their wickedness, and said, Why do you test me, you hypocrites?
Show me the tax money. They brought to him a denarius.
He asked them, Whose is this image and inscription?
They said to him, Caesar’s. Then he said to them, Give therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s.
“. . . the great Moses has not named the species of the rational soul by a title resembling that of any created being, but has pronounced it an image of the divine and invisible being, making it a coin as it were of sterling metal, stamped and impressed with the seal of God, the impression of which is the eternal word.”
Philo, Concerning Noah’s Work As a Planter, Section V, translated by C.D. Yonge
“For a person mints many coins with a single seal, and they are all alike one another. But the King of king of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He, minted all human beings with that seal of his with which he made the first person, yet not one of them is like anyone else. Therefore everyone is obligated to maintain, “On my account the world was created.”
Mishnah, Sanhedrin 4:5
“Perhaps these theological concepts serve as a background for the saying of Jesus, “Then render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s.” After all, not only is Caesar’s image stamped upon each coin that he has minted; the divine image of the King of kings is stamped upon each person. Jesus was calling upon the people to give everything to God, the Creator of every human being.”
Brad H. Young, The Parables, Jewish Tradition and Christian Interpretation, Hendrickson Publishers, pg. 10
In Pirkei Avot, it says,
רבי אלעזר איש ברתותא אומר: תן לו משלו, שאתה ושלך שלו. וכן בדוד הוא אומר (דברי הימים א כט) כי ממך הכל ומידך נתנו לך
“Rabbi Elazar of Bartosa would say: Give Him what is His, for you, and whatever is yours, are His. As David says: “For everything comes from You, and from Your own hand we give to You” (I Chronicles 29:14).”
Pirkei Avot 3:7, cited at Chabad.org
When they heard it, they marveled, and left him, and went away.
On that day Sadducees (those who say that there is no resurrection) came to him. They asked him,
saying, Rabbi, Moses said, If a man dies, having no children, his brother shall marry his wife, and raise up seed for his brother.
Now there were with us seven brothers. The first married and died, and having no seed left his wife to his brother.
In the same way, the second also, and the third, to the seventh.
After them all, the woman died.
In the resurrection therefore, whose wife will she be of the seven? For they all had her.
But Yeshua answered them, You are mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God.
For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like Gods angels in heaven.
“A favorite saying of Rab was: [The future world is not like this world.] In the future world there is no eating nor drinking nor propagation nor business nor jealousy nor hatred nor competition, but the righteous sit with their crowns on their heads feasting on the brightness of the divine presence, as it says, ‘And they beheld G-d, and did eat and drink.”
Berachot 17a, Soncino Press Edition
But concerning the resurrection of the dead, haven’t you read that which was spoken to you by God, saying,
I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the dead, but of the living.
When the multitudes heard it, they were astonished at his teaching.
But the Pharisees, when they heard that he had silenced the Sadducees, gathered themselves together.
One of them, a Torah scholar, asked him a question, testing him.
Rabbi, which is the greatest commandment in the Torah?
Yeshua said to him, You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind.
This is the first and great commandment.
A second likewise is this, You shall love your neighbor as yourself.
The whole Torah and the Prophets depend on these two commandments.
Now while the Pharisees were gathered together, Yeshua asked them a question,
saying, What do you think of the Messiah? Whose son is he? They said to him, Of David.
He said to them, How then does David in the Spirit call him Lord, saying,
HaShem said to my Lord, sit on my right hand, until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet? (Psalm 110:1)
Some interpret this passage as referring to Abraham,
R. Hana b. Liwai said: Shem, [Noah’s] eldest son, said to Eliezer [Abraham’s servant], ‘When the kings of the east and west attacked you, what did you do?’ – He replied, ‘The Holy One, blessed be He, took Abraham and placed him at His right hand, and they [God and Abraham] threw dust which turned to swords and chaff which turned to arrows, as it is written, A Psalm of David. The Lord said unto my master, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.”
Sanhedrin 108b, Soncino Press Edition
The Midrash Rabbah says,
R. Ishmael and R. Akiba [reasoned as follows]. R. Ishmael said: Abraham was a High Priest, as it says, The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent: Thou art a priest for ever after the manner of Melchizedek (Ps. CX, 4).
Genesis Rabbah 46:5, Soncino Press Editon, Cf. Gen. Rabbah 55:6, 55:7, Lev. Rabbah 25:6, Deut. Rabbah 2:7
One thing we know for sure, is that whoever the speaker is in this psalm, the second “Lord” is greater than the speaker. While the above passages speak of Abraham as the one at God’s Right hand, the Midrash on Psalms places the Messiah there,
R. Yudan said in the name of R. Hama: In the time-to-come, when the Holy One, blessed be He, seats the lord Messiah at His right hand, as is said The Lord saith unto my lord: “Sit thou at My right hand” (Ps. 110:1), and seats Abraham at His left, Abraham’s face will pale, and he will say to the Lord: “My son’s son sits at the right, and I at the left!” Thereupon the Holy One, blessed be He, will comfort Abraham, saying: “Thy son’s son is at My right, but I, in a manner of speaking, am at thy right”: The Lord [is] at thy right hand (Ps. 110:5).
Midrash Tehillim 18.29, translated by William G. Braude, Yale University Press Edition, pg. 261
[God says:] “Ephraim, My firstborn, you sit on My right until I subdue the army of the hosts of God and Magog, your enemies, under your footstool . . .”
Midrash Alpha Betot, 2:438-42, cited in Messiah Texts
The Rashbi is attributed as saying
” . . .the Holy One, blessed be He, will fight for Israel and will say to the Messiah : “Sit at my right.” And the Messiah will say to Israel:”Gather together and stand and see the salvation of the Lord.” And instantly the Holy One, blessed be He, will go forth and fight against them . . .May that time and that period be near!”
T’fillat R’ Shimon ben Yochai, BhM 4:124-26
The incredibly fascinating book by R’ Hillel Shklover, the disciple of the Vilna Gaon, entitled Kol HaTor (The Voice of the Turtledove), makes this amazing statement,
יָדִין בַּ֭גֹּויִם מָלֵא גְוִיֹּות
“He will judge the nations filled with corpses (Psalm 110:6) – The entire Psalm, beginning with “Sit on my right” was said about Mashiach ben Yosef, whose name is hinted at in the initial letters יָדִ֣ין בַּ֭גֹּויִם מָלֵ֣א גְוִיֹּ֑ות going from left to right. . .”
Kol HaTor 2.61, translated by Rabbi Yechiel Bar Lev and K. Skaist, YedidNefesh.com
Indeed, the Pharisees did have a great depth of knowledge about the Tanakh:
“These are the two anointed ones, that stand by the Lord of the whole earth (Zech. 4:14). This is a reference to Aaron and the Messiah, but I cannot tell which is the more beloved. However, from the verse, The Lord hath sworn and will not repent: Thou art a priest for ever after the manner of Mechizedek (Psalm 110:4), one can tell that the Messianic King is more beloved that the righteous priest.”
The Fathers According to Rabbi Nathan, Translated by Judah Goldin, Chapter 34, Yale University Press, pg. 137-138.
Footnote: This psalm has been taken to refer to the Messiah. Cf. Epistle to the Hebrews, Chs 5-7
If then David calls him Lord, how is he his son?